Classical Arabic (abbreviated as 'CA') is known as the variation of Arabic language utilized in literary texts from the times of the Umayyad Caliphate and Abbasid Caliphate (around the seventh to ninth centuries). Also called as Quranic Arabic, the language is based on the medieval dialects of the Arab tribes. The Modern Standard Arabic (or MSA) is the closest descendant utilized these days throughout the Arab world in writing and formal speaking.
While the stylistics and lexis of the MSA differ from that of the Classical Arabic, the syntax and morphology have remained constant, even though the MSA utilizes some syntatic structures that are found in CA. However, the native dialects have drastically changed. When it comes to the Arab world, there's only a minor distinction between the Modern Standard Arabic and the Classical Arabic, and both are considered as 'al-fusha' or 'the most eloquent languages'.
Classical Arabic is considered as sacred by most of the Muslims, due to the fact that the Quran is written in such a language. It is mostly the language in which Muslims recite their prayers, even if it is not the actual language that they normally speak. Classical Arabic is classified among the Semitic languages, having a lot of similarities in pronunciation and conjugation to Amharic, Aramaic, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Hebrew.
Classical Arabic originated from the central and northern parts of the Arabian Peninsula, and is quite different from the Old South Arabian languages spoken in the southern areas of the peninsula (Yemen). The language co-existed with the Old North Arabian languages. The oldest inscription in Classical Arabic dates back to 328 A.D., written in the Nabatean alphabet and named after the place where it was discovered in 1901 in the southern part of Syria.